Keywords : Grid connected PV systems; Electric vehicles; Heat pumps; Distribution grid; Flexibility;

Many energy policies set a goal of decreasing the carbon emissions of the energy sector by up to 100%, including the electricity grid. This is a long term and gradual process. Energy systems in neighbourhoods will likely be the starting point for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation since they account for 70% of global carbon emissions. This work, in collaboration with the Industrial Services of Geneva (SIG) and the IPESE laboratory at EPFL, examines the influence of grid-connected PV systems, heating electrification, and mobility electrification on the low voltage grid. The study utilizes the Renewable Energy Hub Optimizer (REHO) to simulate neighbourhood behaviors under diverse horizons and technologies penetrations. A case study is performed in three neighbourhoods in Geneva with different grid structures namely Rural, Villa and Residential. The Rural having lower density and high PV potential, Villa more density but lower PV potential and Residential with high density and low PV potential. The results are then extrapolated, with the help of clustering, to offer a global view of the future needs and PV production of the canton of Geneva. A financial analysis is then conducted to propose tailored solutions to the local Distribution System Operator (DSO). Results suggest that District Heating Networks (DHN) are particularly important in Residential neighbourhoods in order to optimise their \(CO_2\) emissions and energy demand. Furthermore this study shows that without a DHN, the Residential neighbourhood can support only 30% of electric mobility with the current grid structure. It also suggests that with the current grid structure the Rural and Villa neighbourhoods will have to curtail part of the PV production. Finally the study argues that for the Rural cluster network expansion is the most suitable solution in the long-term, and for the Villa cluster a combination of transformer replacement and paid flexibility is best. Nevertheless, the study shows that the expansion of the grid without storage does not offer significant advantages in exploiting the full potential of PV production.


This master thesis was the product of the collaboration between the Industrial Process and Energy Systems Engineering (IPESE) laboratory and the Industrial Services of Geneva (SIG).

First of all I would like to thank Mr. Lepour who supervised my work and guided me with patience and care during those 6 months. I would also like to thank Prof. Maréchal for accepting to supervise this project and and for his valuable inputs.

I extend my sincere thanks to Ms. Nibbio for her time and illuminating discussions who really guided this project. Of course a big thank you to Mr. Fressineau and his team for making SIG a great working environment and for allowing me to discover the real terrain work and real-world challenges. Thank you to Mr. Kunckler with whom this adventure started. Also thank you to Erica, Said and Xavier who made every day of this journey a real pleasure.

As this project also means the end of my EPFL voyage, I would like to thank my parents and my sister for believing in me and supporting me from day one. A big thank you to my fellow Electrical Engineering friends and crazy Satellite friends. Thank you to Blanche, Florine, Malo, Michou and Kotick who managed to put a smile on my face every single day of my EPFL journey. And finally thank you to Simon for sharing a big part of this experience with me and making it unforgettable.



Annual Revenues


District Heating Network


Domestic Hot Water


Distribution System Operator


Building Idetifier


Energy Reference Area


Electric Vehicle


Geographical Information System


Heat Pump


Key Performance Indicator


Levelized Costs of Energy




Mixed Integer Linear Programming


Multi-Objective Optimisation


Maximum Power Point Tracking






Photovoltaic Curtailment


Renewable Energy Hub Optimiser


Renewable Energy




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